Volume 35 Guidelines

Editorial Board for Vol. 35
Kimberly Klassen (Editor in Chief), Takeshi Ishikawa

                      LRB, Vol 35, will be published in late AY2020.  The following are directions and guidelines for submitting articles for publication in Vol 35.

LRB Guidelines and Style Sheet for Volume 35 (2020)

The Language Research Bulletin (LRB) is a publication of International Christian University. The LRB publishes previously unpublished papers that involve research in language, language learning, language teaching, linguistics, and literature. Authors (or first authors in papers with more than one author) must be current full-time or part-time members of the ICU teaching staff. Papers may be written in the medium of English or Japanese or any other language that is taught at ICU. 

The LRB is blind peer-reviewed, compiled, and edited under the management of the LRB Editorial Board, whose members are volunteers or appointed by the Director of the ELA. Those who wish to submit an article to be considered for publication in the next issue of the LRB, Volume 35, must submit two MS WORD (one with the author's name and the other without) files as an email attachment to lrb@icu.ac.jp.  The due date is before 4pm on Friday, September 11, 2020.  No late submissions will be accepted.

Authors may consult the LRB Editorial Board about any aspect of a paper under preparation. The recommended style sheet for the LRB closely follows that of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2009, 6th ed.). Before they begin their research, authors should read in this manual the chapter of Writing for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. The LRB style sheet for Volume 34 is given below. Authors submitting a paper in the medium of Japanese or another language should contact the LRB Editorial Board about the style sheet to be used. Papers that are submitted incomplete or late are not considered for publication.

The Editorial Board conveys decisions regarding the acceptance of papers to first authors in early October. If the Editorial Board recommends changes in a paper, first authors must resubmit those changes by mid-November. The final paper should be submitted at the beginning of February. Authors of papers published in the LRB do not need to request permission if they wish to revise and submit their papers for publication elsewhere. When a paper published in the LRB is subsequently published elsewhere, however, it must include an acknowledgment that the paper or an earlier version of it first appeared in the LRB.

Anyone who has a question about these procedures is welcome to ask the LRB Editorial Board at lrb@icu.ac.jp

Specific Guidelines and style sheet for LRB Volume 35

For papers submitted in English, the LRB guidelines are a slightly modified version of the style sheet of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (6th ed., 2009). For APA6 updates see http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html. (If you plan on submitting a paper in a language other than English, please let us know before September 11, 2020)

The APA6 can be purchased from major online bookstores, such as Amazon,

Part 1 below describes LRB Format. Part 2 suggests ways to avoid common APA6 errors. Part 3 provides selected examples of references according to APA6 style. Part 1 is required reading; Parts 2 and 3 may be unnecessary depending on your familiarity with the APA6.

Part 1. LRB Format

Abstract. Include an indented abstract of 100 to 200 words (p. 17). All abstracts are requested to be written in English, even if the rest of the paper is in another language (p. 103).

Length. 3000 to 5000 words in length when written in English or 7500 to 12500 characters in Japanese, single-spaced, including references and appendices.

Paper size. A 4

Font. Times New Roman. 14 point for title and 12 point for everything else. (The font in tables and figures may vary from 12-point, but should be no smaller than 8-point.)

Margins. Justified. Left and right: 2.5 cm or 0.98 inch. Top and bottom: 3.0 cm or 1.18 inch. Start each page of text, including the title on the first page, on the very top line.

Headings. Do not have an "Introduction" heading. For other headings, use the following heading styles:

This is a First Level Heading

This is a Second Level Heading

This is a third level heading. Run the third level heading into the paragraph of the text.

Indentation. Except for the abstract, indent all paragraphs five spaces (usually the default tab setting). Your first indented paragraph should be lined up with the left margin of your abstract. The abstract is also indented five spaces from the right margin (p. 17).

First page. In the header space of the first page, insert "Language Research Bulletin35, ICU, Tokyo." The title of the paper should appear on the very top line of the first page. Leave two blank lines (all blank lines are in a 12-point font) between (a) the title and the author's name, (b) two blank lines between the author's name and the abstract, and (c) two blank lines between the abstract and the main text.  

Lines and spacing. Use single space. If all lines on a page are in a Times New Roman 12 point font there will be about 50 lines on every page except for the title page (with the title in an 14 point font) and perhaps pages containing tables or figures. Do not leave blank lines between paragraphs that fall under the same heading. Leave two blank lines above any separated section heading, and one blank line below that heading (p. 20). Leave one space (and not two) after periods and colons.

Bold, italics, and underline. Use bold only for the title, section headings, and titles of tables and figures. Use italics according to APA 6 usage. Do not use underline.

Running title. Include a running title of no more than 40 characters centered in the header of every page except the first page. The distance between the running title and the edge of the page should be 1.7 cm. You can set this distance with the "Page Setup" option in MS Word.

Page numbers. Paginate the document in the footer starting with the first page. Use Times New Roman 12 point font and put the page numbers in the center of the footer.

Optional sections. Optional sections that may come after your main text include (a) Notes, (b) Acknowledgments (p. 87), (c) The Author (about yourself), (d) References, and (e) Appendix (p. 153). It is unlikely that the end of your paper will have more than two or three of these sections, but if it does, the sections should appear in the order above. Use endnotes (not footnotes) and only sparingly.

Tables and figures. See pages 25, 53, 82, 94 for examples of tables and figures. An easy way to format a table in Word is through the "autoformat" option.

Part 2. Avoiding Common APA Errors

The style sheet of The Language Teacher published by JALT recommends checking the following eight points of APA style before submitting your manuscript:


Use a comma

before and and or in a series of three or more items.


according to Bell, Burt and Carter (1994)


according to Bell, Burt, and Carter (1994)

to link independent clauses.


The researchers collected the questionnaires and they analyzed the data.


The researchers collected the questionnaires, and they analyzed the data.

after phrases, introductory words, and clauses.


During the 1980s and early 1990s many schools enjoyed a period of growth in their programs. For example JKL English School saw a jump of 30% in the number of students during this period. After the recession set in this school has had to come up with new ideas to promote its program.


During the 1980s and early 1990s, many schools enjoyed a period of growth in their programs. For example, JKL English School saw a jump of 30% in the number of students during this period. After the recession set in, this school has had to come up with new ideas to promote its program.


Use lowercase letters to identify elements in a series within a paragraph or sentence.


Three reasons for using simulation activities include (1) increasing motivation, (2) helping learners identify with the target culture, and (3) reducing anxiety levels in the classroom.


Three reasons for using simulation activities include (a) increasing motivation, (b) helping learners identify with the target culture, and (c) reducing anxiety levels in the classroom.


Place commas and periods inside closing quotation marks, but put colons and semicolons outside closing quotation marks.


Ball (1997) believes that "TV commercial messages are superior to other forms of video", and he suggests that commercials are "truly authentic;" other practitioners may disagree.


Ball (1997) believes that "TV commercial messages are superior to other forms of video," and he suggests that commercials are "truly authentic"; other practitioners may disagree.


Use ellipses to indicate where you have omitted something from the material you are quoting. Type three periods with a space before and after each period to indicate any omission within a sentence. Type four periods to indicate any omission between two sentences.


Jones (1993) suggests that learners should "try to take control of their own learning inside and outside of the classroom...by setting goals...This should help them see their daily progress" (p. 245).


Jones (1993) suggests that learners should "try to take control of their own learning inside and outside of the classroom . . . by setting goals . . . . This should help them see their daily progress" (p. 245).

If an omission occurs at the beginning of the quoted passage, do not use an ellipsis to identify the omission, nor use an ellipsis at the end as long as you end with a complete sentence (otherwise everything quoted would need ellipses).


Harris also says that ". . . the results coincide with recent studies . . ." (1994, p. 45).


Harris also says that "the results coincide with recent studies" (1994, p. 45).


Arrange citations in the text in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author regardless of the date of publication. Single author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname. Use an ampersand (&), not the conjunction and, before the last author. Connect each reference with a semicolon.


(Snow and Day, 1988; Snow, 1984; Wilson, Bee and Green, 1978)


(Snow, 1984; Snow & Day, 1988; Wilson, Bee, & Green, 1978)


The general rule is to use figures to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers nine and below. One exception is at the beginning of a sentence, shown in (7) below.


Place footnote numbers slightly above the line (superscript) following any punctuation mark except a dash


Twenty-five students participated in the study (1).


Twenty-five students participated in the study.1

Part 3. Selected Examples of References in APA Style

Book, single author:

Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Book, more than one author:

O'Grady, W., Dobrovolsky, M., & Aronoff, M. (1989). Contemporary linguistics:An introduction. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Book, edited:

Asher, R. (Ed.). (1994). The encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Book, chapter:

Brown, J. D. (1983). A closer look at cloze: Validity and reliability. In J. W. Oller, Jr. (Ed.), Issues in language testing research (pp. 237-250). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Journal author, single author:

Alderson, C. (1979). The cloze procedure and proficiency in English. TESOLQuarterly, 13, 219-227.

Unpublished thesis:

Baroudi, S. (1983). Scores on the AUBEN and TOEFL as predictors of English grades. Unpublished master's thesis, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Unpublished paper presented at a meeting:

Lank, C. (1991, May). Early data on trauma. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Society of Psychology, San Diego, CA.

For other types of references or any other questions, please consult the APA6 or the LRB Editorial Board: lrb@icu.ac.jp